Brian Gall, Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Biology
(812) 866-7249


– Ecology and Evolution
– Herpetology
– Biodiversity
– Animal Behavior
– Evolution
– Vertebrate Biology

Learn more about Dr. Gall

Brian Gall grew up in South East Iowa climbing trees and creek stomping on his family’s farm. His passion for the outdoors was cemented in graduate school where he worked on everything from giant salamanders to super-toxic newts. He came to Hanover in 2012 and currently teaches many of the zoology courses offered by the Biology Department. Outside of class, he enjoys conducting research with students on predator-prey interactions, going hunting and fishing with his boys, and playing cards.


M.S. Missouri State University

Ph.D. Utah State University


2017, The Daryl R. Karns Award for Scholarly and Creative Activity


Brian G. Gall and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2009. Behavioral avoidance of injured conspecific and predatory chemical stimuli by larvae of the aquatic caddisfly Hesperophylax occidentalis. Canadian Journal of Zoology 87 (11): 1009–1015, DOI: 10.1139/Z09-091.

Brian G. Gall and Alicia Mathis. 2010. Innate predator recognition and the problem of introduced trout. Ethology 116: 47–58, DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0310.2009.01718.x.

Brian G. Gall, Adam L. Crane, and Alicia Mathis. 2010. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis (Eastern Hellbender) Secretion Production. Herpetological Review 41 (1): 59.

Brian G. Gall and Alicia Mathis. 2010.  Response of native and introduced fishes to presumed antipredator secretions of Ozark hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi). Behaviour 147: 1769–1789, DOI: 10.1163/000579510X535749.

Brian G. Gall, Abigail A. Farr, Sophia G. A. Engel, and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2011.  Toxic prey and predator avoidance: responses of toxic newts to chemical stimuli from a predator and injured conspecifics. Northwestern Naturalist 92 (1): 1-6, DOI: 10.1898/10-22.1.

Brian G. Gall and Alicia Mathis. 2011. Ontogenetic shift in response to amphibian alarm cues by Banded Sculpins (Cottus carolinae). Copeia 2011 (1): 5-8, DOI: 10.1643/CE-09-229.

Brian G. Gall, Gareth R. Hopkins, and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2011. Mechanics and ecological role of swimming behavior in the caddisfly larvae Triaenodes tardus. Journal of Insect Behavior 24: 317–328, DOI: 10.1007/s10905-011-9260-1.

Joseph S. Wilson and Brian G. GallThamnophis elegans (Western Terrestrial Garter Snake) feeding behavior, prey subjugation by drowning. 2011. Herpetological Review 42 (1): 103.

Brian G. Gall, Amber N. Stokes, Susannah S. French, Elizabeth A. Schlepphorst, Edmund D. Brodie III., and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2011. Tetrodotoxin levels in larval and metamorphosed newts (Taricha granulosa) and palatability to predatory dragonflies. Toxicon 57: 978-983, DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2011.03.020.

Brian G. Gall, Edmund. D. Brodie III, and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2011. Survival and growth of the caddisfly Limnephilus flavastellus after predation on toxic eggs of the Rough-skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa). Canadian Journal of Zoology 89 (6): 483–489, DOI: 10.1139/z11-015.

Gareth R. Hopkins, Brian G. Gall, and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2011. Ontogenetic shift in efficacy of antipredator mechanisms in a top aquatic predator, Anax junius (Odonata: Aeshnidae). Ethology 117: 1093-1100, DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0310.2011.01963.x.

Gareth R. Hopkins, Brian G. Gall, Susannah S. French, and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2012. Interfamily variation in amphibian early life-history traits: raw material for natural selection? Ecology and Evolution 2: 1637-1643, DOI: 10.1002/ece3.287.

**Featured in the Amphibiaweb weekly research highlight (9 July 2012):

Brian G. Gall, Amber N. Stokes, Susannah S. French, Edmund D. Brodie III., and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2012. Female newts (Taricha granulosa) produce tetrodotoxin laden eggs after long term captivity. Toxicon 60:1057-1062. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.07.017

Brian G. Gall, Edmund D. Brodie III., and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2012. Fine-scale selection by ovipositing females increases egg survival. Ecology and Evolution 2: 2763-2774. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.389

Brian G. Gall, Amber N. Stokes, Susannah S. French, Edmund D. Brodie III., and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2012. Predatory caddisfly larvae (Limnephilus flavastellus) sequester tetrodotoxin from their prey, eggs of the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa). Journal of Chemical Ecology 38:1351-1357. DOI: 10.1007/s10886-012-0213-8.

**Highlighted by Science News in the June 29, 2013 issue of Science News Prime (see below for link)

**Chosen for cover of the November issue of Journal of Chemical Ecology (

Emily E. Ferry, Gareth R. Hopkins, Amber N. Stokes, Shabnam Mohammadi, Edmund D. Brodie, Jr., and Brian G. Gall. 2013. Do all portable cases constructed by caddisfly larvae function in defense? Journal of Insect Science 13:1-9.

Brian G. Gall, Leticia Hoffmann, and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2013. Hatching plasticity under complex conditions: responses of newt embryos to chemical and mechanical stimuli from egg and larval predators. Western North American Naturalist 73:80-88.

Jory Johnson, Brian G. Gall, Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2013. Predator avoidance in lab-reared juvenile rough-skinned newts, Taricha granulosa. Northwestern Naturalist 94:103–109

Krista A. Larson, Brian G. Gall, Jeffrey T. Briggler. 2013. The use of gastric transmitters to locate nests and study movement patterns of male Ozark hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishop) during the breeding season. Herpetological Review 44:434-439.

Kari L. Vollmer and Brian G. Gall. 2014. Complex predator-prey interactions between the rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) and invertebrate and vertebrate prey within its native range. Journal of Freshwater Ecology. DOI: 10.1080/02705060.2014.888688

Brian G. Gall, Amber N. Stokes, Jory J. Pett, Kari L. Spivey, Susannah S. French, Edmund D. Brodie III., and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr.  2014. Tetrodotoxin concentrations within a clutch and across embryonic development in the eggs of the rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa). Toxicon 90:249-254. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2014.08.060

Trevor L. Chapman, Mathew P. Holcomb, Kari L. Spivey, Evanna K. Sehr, and Brian G. Gall. 2014. A test of local enhancement in amphibians. Ethology 120:1-7. DOI: 10.1111/eth.12337

Kari L. Spivey, Trevor L. Chapman, Alexandra L. Schmitz, Derek E. Bast, Amelia L.B. Smith, and Brian G. Gall. 2015. The alarm cue obstruction hypothesis: Isopods respond to alarm cues, but do not respond to dietary chemical cues from predatory bluegill. Behaviour 152:167-179. DOI: 10.1163/1568539X-00003237

Amber N. Stokes, Andrew M. Ray, Mark W. Buktenica, Brian G. Gall, Elva Paulson, Dale Paulson, Susannah S. French, Edmund D. Brodie III, and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2015. Otter predation on Taricha granulosa and variation in tetrodotoxin levels with elevation. Northwestern Naturalist 96:13-21.

Evie K. Sehr, and Brian G. Gall. In Press. Responses of an aquatic isopod and amphipod to chemical alarm cues from damaged conspecifics. Journal of Freshwater Ecology.

Trevor L. Chapman, Kari L. Spivey, Jennifer M. Lundergan, Alexandra L. Schmitz, Derek E. Bast, Evie K. Sehr, and Brian G. Gall. 2016. Only Fear the Fatal Foe: Predation risk assessment by eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) in response to common snapping turtles and other potential predators. Ethology Ecology & Evolution. DOI: 10.1080/03949370.2015.1137358

Evie K. Sehr, Linday N. Beasley, Kurtis W. Wilson, and Brian G. Gall. 2016. When can embryos learn? A test of the timing of learning in embryonic amphibians. Ecology and Evolution 6:2486–2493. doi:10.1002/ece3.2018

Brian G. GallPseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper) natural ensnarement. In Press.  Herpetological Review.

Dr. Gall in the Field